A new study, published in Frontiers in Aging, has found that a combination of high-dose vitamin D, omega-3s, and a simple home strength exercise program (SHEP) showed a cumulative reduction by 61 per cent in cancer risk in healthy adults aged 70 or older.
It is the first study to test the combined benefit of three affordable public health interventions for the prevention of invasive cancers.
Following future studies, the results may impact the future of cancer prevention in older adults.
Cancer is considered a major age-related disease in Europe and the US.
It is the second leading cause of mortality in older adults and the chances of getting most cancers increases with age.
Apart from preventative recommendations such as not smoking and sun protection, public health efforts that focus on cancer prevention are limited, according to Dr Heike Bischoff-Ferrari of the University Hospital Zurich.
“Preventive efforts in middle-aged and older adults today are largely limited to screening and vaccination efforts,” he says.
Vitamin D, omega-3, and exercise
Mechanistic studies have shown that vitamin D inhibits the growth of cancer cells.
Similarly, omega-3 may inhibit the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells, and exercise has been shown to improve immune function and decrease inflammation, which may help in the prevention of cancer.
However, there was a lack of robust clinical studies proving the effectiveness of these three simple interventions, alone or combined.
Bischoff-Ferrari and her colleagues wanted to fill these knowledge gaps by testing the effect of daily high-dose vitamin D3 (one form of vitamin D supplements), daily supplemental omega-3s, and a simple home exercise program, alone and in combination, on the risk of invasive cancer among adults aged 70 or older.
A combination of simple treatments
To do so, the researchers conducted the DO-HEALTH trial, which took place across three-years in five European countries (Switzerland, France, Germany, Austria, and Portugal), with 2157 participants.
“In DO-HEALTH, our aim was to test promising combined interventions for cancer prevention taking advantage of potentially small additive benefits from several public health strategies,” Bischoff-Ferrari explained.
“In fact, novel cancer treatments aim to block multiple pathways for cancer development by combining several agents.
“We translated this concept into cancer prevention.”
The participants were randomly separated into eight different groups to test the individual and combined benefit of the interventions: group one received 2000 IU per day of Vitamin D3 (equivalent to more than double the amount of current recommendations for older adults, which is 800 IU per day), 1g per day of omega-3s, and three SHEPs per week; group two: vitamin D3 and omega-3s; group three: vitamin D3 and SHEP; group four: omega-3s and SHEP; group five: vitamin D3 alone; group six: omega-3s alone; group seven: SHEP alone; and the last group received a placebo.
Participants received check-up phone calls every three months and had standardised examinations of health and function in the trial centres at baseline, year one, year two, and year three.
Preventing invasive cancer
The results show that all three treatments (vitamin D3, omega-3s, and SHEP) had cumulative benefits on the risk of invasive cancers.
Each of the treatments had a small individual benefit but when all three treatments were combined, the benefits became statistically significant, and the researchers saw an overall reduction in cancer risk by 61 per cent.
The results may impact the future of invasive cancer prevention in older adults.
“Our results, although based on multiple comparisons and requiring replication, may prove to be beneficial for reducing the burden of cancer,” Bischoff-Ferrari concluded.
“Future studies should verify the benefit of combined treatments in the prevention of cancer, also extending to longer follow-ups beyond the three-year duration assessed in this trial.”
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